The construction industry in each country of the world has some differences.Therefore, the role of the architect in this situation is different. The design approach has a lot in common, but there are differences. The constantly increasing rhythm of the construction of various industrial and civil structures requires a more rapid creation of the necessary architectural projects. However, this is rather difficult to realize for a number of reasons:
  • The prevalence of high construction rates makes design organizations not only reduce the timelines for the development of design documentation, but also the quality of the construction projects. The application of the basic principles of quality management according to ISO-9000 in this situation contains outmoded requirements for design documentation in Russia.
  • In addition, the existing technology for the development of an architectural project makes it difficult to speed up the time and quality of design. As a rule, design organizations, just like the state, really do not have enough money to purchase advanced equipment and related programs.

The maximum study of the experience of progressive world states will make it possible to solve effectively the problems of creating architectural projects of a sufficiently high European level.

Some features of the construction project implementation in the EU countries

In 2013, the European Standardization Committee introduced the relevant document EN 16310. It specifies the conditions for transboundary cooperation of architects from 33 countries of the European Union. Despite the difference in the design conditions of various structures and building traditions, they could use a single coordinate system in their activities, which makes it possible for developers of construction projects to understand each other.

Structuring of the architectural design phases in the European standard almost completely coincides with GOST R 55654-2013, existing in the Russian Federation. In addition, not only “purely design”, but also “pre-design” stages are uniform. Even feasibility study is identical.

Main stages of the project life cycle are presented in the table below:

Stages Sub stages
0. Initiative 0.1 Market Study
0.2 Business Case
1. Initiation 1.1 Project Initiation
1.2 Feasibility study
1.3 Project Definition
2. Design 2.1 Conceptual Design
2.2 Preliminary Design and Developed Design (B&I)
2.3 Technical Design or FEED
2.4 Detailed Engineering
3. Procurement (IF) 3.1 Procurement
3.2 Construction Contracting
4. Construction 4.1 Pre-Construction
4.2 Construction
4.3 Commissioning
4.4 Hand Over
4.5 Regulatory Approval
5. Use 5.1 Operation
5.2 Maintenance
6. End of life 6.1 Revamping
6.2 Dismantling

However, European regulatory documents provide deeper differentiation of the design process compared to requirements in the CIS countries. In this regard, it is imperative to carry out terminological coordination of the architectural design stages, taking into account the peculiarities of European Union standards. Nevertheless, the use of the ISO 9001 management system in the activities of any project company enables it to take part in the development of construction projects for customers both in their country and in European countries.

Synonyms for Design sub stages:

Sub stages Application for Synonyms
B&I IF
2.1 Conceptual Design X X Site Layout
Outline Design
Master Plan
Design concept
2.2 Preliminary Design

and

Developed Design
X



X
X Basic Design
Schematic Design


Final Design
2.3 Technical Design
or
FEED
X

X
Technical Design (B&I)

FEED: Front End Engineering
Development
(IF)
2.4 Detailed Engineering X X Construction Design

Some features of the construction project implementation in the USA

The phasing of architectural design is influenced by the specific subtleties of the construction process of any structure. The algorithm for construction project development is almost the same throughout the world. However, the specification of the scope of work and therefore the official formation of each project stage has certain differences in the USA and the CIS. In addition, in America there are stages that are officially absent in Russia. These include Program, Bidding phase, and several others. In the USA, unlike the CIS, the stages of an architectural project development are more clearly defined. Therefore, any practicing architect intuitively understands what he needs to do. American experts call each design stage a phase.

It is customary to start creating a construction project in the USA, as well as in the CIS, with a pre-project inspection of the object – Predesign. The work comes down to a technical analysis of the site. This process in the USA is called Field Measuring, Site Analysis, Survey, or Geotechnical. It includes:

  • Checking the zoning of the construction area;
  • Clarification of the extent to which the location of the structure meets urban planning standards (Zoning Analysis, Code analysis).

In America, master plans for each city are very affordable.

The scope of the construction project (Project Scope) is determined at this stage. This rate depends on:

  • Maximum size of the facility and construction site;
  • Accessibility of energy;
  • Other main criteria.

The detailed formation of an architectural project in the USA is called Project Goals. The next stage is the development of the Program. In general, the work at this stage resembles the process of creating a “design assignment”. 

However, designing the Program has some specific features. After completing this document, the Americans proceed with:

  • Project Schedule;
  • Selection Of Project team;
  • Project Budgeting.

The next phase is the process of direct design:

The first stage is the development of an architectural project. American designers call it Schematic Design phase. In the USA, this stage sometimes has a name Concept / Sketches.

The second stage of building design in America is called Design Development phase. At this stage of the construction project development, the designers are engaged in solving all the remaining architectural problems. Upon completion of this stage, only certain civil engineering issues remain unresolved. It is necessary to find solutions for any architectural aspect. During the execution of the Design Development phase:

  • all dimensions of the structure are determined not only as in the plan, but also in height;
  • constructive structure of the building is selected;
  • all are selected, both supporting and enclosing building and finishing materials;
  • the appearance of the structure is approved, each facade must be finally worked out and measured;
  • the arrangement of all sanitary equipment and all technological equipment is being worked out;
  • providing facilities for the installation of life-supporting units such as boiler rooms, pump rooms, electrical rooms, ventilation chambers, etc.

After the professionally implemented Design Development phase, designers begin to draw up drawings for the construction site, which is similar to the design documentation in the CIS.

The third stage of project development is Construction Documents phase, creation of construction drawings. Builders will work with this documentation at the construction site. All engineering and construction issues are thoroughly worked out during the development of this stage. Professional matching is carried out with all related sections of the project: Mechanical, Structural, Electrical, Electrical and Plumbing, etc. This design phase ends with the creation of the so-called Specification. This document is similar to the Explanatory Note.

The fourth stage of the project documentation development is participation in Procurement. This stage is absent in the standard project development process in the CIS. The American architect is most often involved in a section called Bidding. The essential of this activity comes down to qualified assistance with the choice of a general construction contractor. The American architect directly provides professional advice to the construction contractor on all the nuances of the project documentation, and gives the customer recommendations on the selection criteria for the construction general contractor. Such consultations, as a rule, begin in the early stages of design. The Bidding stage in the USA is by all means included in the construction project development process. The sooner the customer of the constructed object decides on the choice of a construction contractor, the less it may be necessary to make changes to the design documentation, which allows cheaper construction. A general construction contractor, interested in gaining access to the construction process, as a rule, offers from his own experience some ideas in the development of the project. This makes it possible to significantly reduce construction costs and accelerate its completion.

The fifth stage of the design of various structures associated with construction administration – Construction Administration phase. In contrast to architectural supervision, which is usual in the CIS, an architect has more authority in America. He actually performs a peculiar role of a customer’s lawyer at a construction site. In the United States, he can control the amount, quality, prices, consumption of purchased building and finishing materials, and much more related to construction. American specialists certainly include the Construction Administration phase as a separate stage in the design process. This is because during the reconstruction of old structures, builders may encounter an unexpected problem. For example, the existing construction has critical wear. Accordingly, it is required to make certain adjustments to the design documentation.

More details about all the nuances of each phase of architectural design in America you can find in the article. The next article contains a detailed description for all phases of the construction project development in the USA.

In the rapid process of world globalization, the adaptation of design solutions of foreign companies is one of the most demanded services on the project market of the Russian Federation. The design and engineering company V-GRAND has many years of design experience, both for the domestic market and for near and distant foreign countries, including countries of the European Union. Having thoroughly studied the experience of developing architectural projects in many advanced countries of the world, when creating construction project documentation, the company tries to make maximum use of the knowledge gained. At each stage of the process of developing technical documentation, our specialists manage to achieve not only its prompt implementation, but also provide technical solutions at a high level.

The design and engineering company V-GRAND carries out the adaptation of design solutions for all stages in accordance with the standards of the European Union and the USA.

Design stages of civil and industrial facilities in the world practice обновлено: Сентябрь 28, 2020 автором: vg_admin